First:
Most children gain the confidence to join the full program
Second:
Most children develop the confidence to join the full program
What do they refer to?


Which expression describes the situation that happens earlier in time?




Is there a contradiction?


Does the second situation cause the first one?


Did the second situation happen as the result of the first one?


As related to the second description the first description is:




As related to the first description the second description is:



Leave your comment:
You are given two expressions, First and Second, each describing a situation.
Your task is to decide
  1. if the the two expressions typically refer to the same or different situations
  2. if the two situations typically happen at the same time or not
  3. if one situation typically causes the other one
  4. if there is a contradiction between them. Judge if the situations described in the expression pairs

Note: the expressions might contain grammatical errors, such as the absence of "the", "a", or wrong attachments of "s/es", which you can safely ignore.
How to decide on "same vs. different situation":
Two expressions refer to the same situation if:
  1. they are alternative descriptions of the same state: "The student like(s/es) studies", "The student enjoy(s/es) studies"
  2. they are alternative descriptions of the same action: "The student investigates(s/es) a task", "The student study(s/es) a task"
  3. or if one expression is more general than the other but describes the same situation:"The student deliver(s/es) a pizza", "The student carry(s/es) a pizza"
It is two different situations if:
  1. if situations happen consecutively: "The student takes(s/es) an exam", "The student pass(s/es) an exam"
Specific, general or paraphrase:
  1. An expression is more general if it provides additional information: "Student get(s/es) scholarship" and "Student win(s/es) scholarship" the second expression is more specific and the first one is more general as it clarifies how a student got a scholarship.
  2. If you can connect two expression by "specifically", "in particular" or "to be more precise" then the second description is more specific: "Student get(s/es) scholarship, to be more precise student win(s/es) scholarship"
  3. If you can connect two expression by "generally speaking", "to be less precise" then the second description is more general: "Student win(s/es) scholarship, to be more precise student get(s/es) scholarship"
  4. An expression is a paraphrase if there is no additional information provided by any of the expressions: "Student get(s/es) scholarship" and "Student receive(s/es) scholarship"
  5. If you can connect two expression by "which literally means", "in other words" then it is a paraphrase: "Student get(s/es) scholarship which literally means student receive(s/es) scholarship"
Result and cause
  1. If you can connect two expression by "the result of it is that", "therefore", "thus" then the second description is the result of the first one: "Student pass(s/es) exam therefore student get(s/es) credit"
  2. If you can connect two expression by "because", "due to the fact that", "which is caused by the fact that" then the second description is the cause of the first one: "student get(s/es) credit because student pass(s/es) exam"
Happens earlier in time
  1. The first situation happens earlier in time if you can connect them by word "before": "Student apply(s/es) for scholarship before Student get(s/es) scholarship"
  2. The first situation happens later in time if you can connect them by word "after": "Student get(s/es) scholarship after Student apply(s/es) for scholarship"
  3. Both happen at the same time if you can connect them by "at the same time as", "while" or "during": "Student learn(s/es) chemistry at the same time as Student study(s/es) chemistry"
Contradiction
  1. There is a contradiction if the situations described could never occur together: "Student hate(s/es) chemistry" and "Student love(s/es) chemistry"
  2. If you can connect two expression by "on the contrary", then it is a contradiction: "Student hate(s/es) chemistry on the contrary Student love(s/es) chemistry"
  3. If you can connect two expression by "because", "due to the fact that", "which is caused by the fact that" then the second description is the cause of the first one: "student get(s/es) credit because student pass(s/es) exam"
  4. If you can connect two expression by "the result of it is that", "therefore", "thus" then the second description is the result of the first one: "Student pass(s/es) exam therefore student get(s/es) credit"
Contradiction, cause or reason
  1. There is a contradiction if the situations described could never occur together: "Student hate(s/es) chemistry" and "Student love(s/es) chemistry"
  2. If you can deny the second description by "No, on the contrary", then it is a contradiction: "Student hate chemistry. No, on the contrary, Student love chemistry"
  3. There is no contradiction if descriptions cannot be meaningfully combined by "on the contrary" "Different chronic diseases affect children. No, on the contrary, Children play" There is no contradiction between the two sentences as one event does not exclude the other one.